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Islands are...

A special conservation need. Islands represent less than 5% of the earth’s land area yet harbor 80% of known species extinctions since 1500 Ricketts et al. 2005, and 39% of today’s IUCN Critically Endangered species (TIB Partners 2012). Invasive vertebrates are a leading cause of insular extinctions and remain a critical threat to endangered island species today (MEA 2005).

A special conservation opportunity. Proven techniques to protect island biodiversity exist, including more than 1,000 successful island eradications of invasive vertebrates worldwide, often followed by remarkable recoveries of endangered species and ecosystems (Keitt et al. 2011). The challenge now is to increase the scale and application of these proven restoration tools to reverse this tide of island extinctions.

Prioritizing conservation for threatened island biodiversity. The Threatened Island Biodiversity database is the most comprehensive global review of IUCN Threatened Species breeding on islands and at risk from invasive vertebrates. Our goal is to help guide where conservation intervention can prevent island extinctions. To date the TIB database includes almost 2000 islands for 1182 threatened species, collated from 1800 scientific literature sources and the contribution of more then 500 experts.

TIB partners include Island Conservation, University of California at Santa Cruz, Coastal Conservation Action Laboratory, BirdLife International, and the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group. Our recommended citation for the TIB database is:


TIB Partners 2012. Threatened Island Biodiversity Database. Version 2012.1. <www.tib.islandconservation.org>.  Downloaded on .

The online Threatened Island Biodiversity database was built with the support of The David and Lucille Packard Foundation, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and the Global Environment Facility.


References
Keitt, B., K. Campbell, A. Saunders, M. Clout, Y. Wang, R. Heinz, K. Newton, and B. Tershy. 2011. The Global Islands Invasive Vertebrate Eradication Database: A tool to improve and facilitate restoration of island ecosystems. In: Veitch, C. R.; Clout, M. N. and Towns, D. R. (eds) 2011. Island invasives: Eradication and management. IUCN, (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Gland, Switzerland.
MEA 2005. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
Ricketts, T.H., E. Dinerstein, T. Boucher, T.M. Brooks, S.H.M. Butchart, M. Hoffmann, et al. 2005. Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:18497-18501
Version 2013.1: (March 2013) Database is published online with comprehensive coverage for island breeding IUCN Critically Endangered and Endangered birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles plus Vulnerable seabirds. We anticipate adding a download feature in early 2013.
TIB Data Collection Team: Kelly Newton, Dena Spatz, Reina Heinz, Erik Oberg, Rory Stansbury, Maddy Pott, Lauren Smith, Leslie Hart, Tyler Nodine, Kai Kopecky, Kevin Davidson, Sarah Sampson, Michael Dittman, Dean Roblee, John Harley, Erin Pickett, Alec Scott, Erin McCreless, Hilary Walecka, Lauren Salcedo, Roxanne Beltrane, Sara Cannon, Dean Roblee, Lindsay Kiel, Austin Robey, and Coral Wolf.

Contributing Experts: Abe Borker, Abram Fleishman, Adam Brown, Adrián Schiavini, Ahmed Saeed, Al Baylis, Alan Burger, Alan Tennyson, Alan Tye, Aldrin Mallari, Alejandro Simeone, Alex Wegmann, Alexander Nazarenko, Allison Hamilton, Alouise Lynch, Alvaro Jaramello, Amelia Geary, Ana Rainho, Andrea Booth, Andrew Burbidge, Andrew Silcocks, Angelica Crottini, Anna Nekaris, Anna Weinstein, Anne Gouni, Anne Harfenist, Annette Scanlon, Anton Wolfaardt, Araceli Samaniego, Arijana Barun, Arturo Kirkconnell, Bandana Aul, Ben Bell, Ben Nims, Bernie Tershy, Beth Flint, Bill Pyle, Bob Pitman, Bonnie Rusk, Boris Fabres, Brent Beaven, Brent Stephenson, Bruce Dyer, Bruce Mckinlay, Bryson Voirin, Carita Bergman, Carl Oliveros, Carl Traeholt, Carlos B. Zavalaga, Carlos Guerra, Carlos Salvador, Charles (Chuck) Knapp, Chris Filardi, Chris Gaskin, Chris Pratt, Chris Savigny, Chris Surman, Christopher Healey, Clare Manning, Clare McInnes, Clare Morrison, Clare Stringer, Claudia Corti, Clive Petrovic, Colin O'Donnell, Colin Trainor, Cornelis J Hazevoet, Cynthia Vanderlip, Daniel Rogers, Danielle Whittaker, Darcy Hu, Darrell Whitworth, Dave Leversee, David Blackburn, David Gibbs, David James Harris, David Leonard, David Paton, Debbie Martyr, Derek Brown, Dick Watling, Diego Tirira, Donald W. Buden, Dr. Johannes Foufopoulos, Dylan Kesler, Eberhard Curio, Elaine Murphy, Eleanor Slade, Ellen Lance, Elsa Bonnaud, Emilio Civantos, Emily Tasale, Eric VanderWerf, Eric Woehler, Erik Oberg, Erin Hagen, Eugenia Zarza, Exequiel Ezcurra, Fabian Jaksic, Fabio Olmos, Faye Bedford, Fernando Hidalgo, Franco Andreone, Fred Amidon, Friederike Spitzenberger, Gary Roemer, Gary Wiles, Gerald Cubitt, Gerry McChesney, Glenn Gerber, Gono Semiadi, Graeme Taylor, Graham Reynolds, Grant Singleton, Gregg Howald, Guillemo Pons, Gustavo Jimenez, Guy Dutson, Han (Danny) Donguk, Hannah Edmonds, Harry Carter, Harry Hines, Heather Lynch, Heather Renner, Hernan Vargas, Hinrich Kaiser, Holly Freifeld, Howard Clark, Hugh Genoways, Hugo Rainey, Ian Fisher, Ian Lundgren, Indira Widmann, Indra yustian, Indraneil Das, Ivan Budinski, Ivan Ineich, J. Bryan Carroll, J.I. Menzies, J.V. Cheeran, Jaime Jimenez, Jaime Ramos, Jaime Salas Zambrano, Jakob Fahr, Jakob Fric, James “Skip” Lazell, James Eaton, Janice Blumenthal, Javier Arata, Javier Juste, Jay Penniman, JeanPaul Roux, Jeff Brannan, Jenny Daltry, Jez Bird, Jim Goetz, Jim Sanderson, Jo Ann MacKenzie, Jo Hiscock, Joel Bried, John Borg, John Davenport, John Dowding, John Healy, John Innes, John Iverson, John Parkes, John Piatt, John Walmsley, Jon Riley, Jonathan Slaght, Jorge Palmeirim, Jose Gonzalez, Jose Ottenwalder, Josh Adams, Judith Figueroa, Julia Boland, Julia Horrocks, Julie Champeau, Justin Gerlach, K. Sivakumar, Karen Bourgeois, Karen Varnham, Karl Bossard, Karl Campbell, Kartik Shankar, Kate Faulkner, Katie Green, Kay Van Damme, Kazuto Kawakami, Keisuke Saito, Keith Morris, Kenneth Sugimura, Kevel Lindsay, Kevin de Queiroz, Kirsty Swinnerton, Kiyoaki Ozaki, Kolinio Moce, Kris Helgen, Kristin Nowell, Kunikazu Momose, Kuniko Otsuki, Kyle Morrison, L. Lee Grismer, Larisa Zelenskaya, Laurie Harvey, Lawrence Heaney, Leandro Bugoni, Lei Fumin, Liliana Ayala, Liliana M. Davalos, Lindy Lumsden, Lisa Paciulli, Lise Ruffino, Lloyd Davis, Luca Luiselli, Lyndon Perriman, Maite Louzao, Manish Chandi, Manori Gunawardena, Manuel Nogales, Marcel Quinten, Marcio Martins, Maren Gaulke, Maria Alice S. Alves, Maria Clara Figueirinhas do Amaral, Maria Felix, Mariano Valverde Romero, Mark Adams, Mark Brazil, Mark O'Brien, Mark Outerbridge, Mark Ricca, Marleen Bailing, Martin Dallimer, Martin Pickersgill, Matthew McKown, Mayumi Sato, Melinda Fowler, Mellissa Price, Menna Jones, Mia Derhe, Michael Brooke, Michael D. Carleton, Michael Tarburton, Michel Breuil, Michelle Kohout, Michelle Reynolds, Miguel Domingues, Miguel McMinn, Miguel Vences, Mike Bell, Mike Bingham, Mike Jennings, Milika Ratu, Nancy Bunbury, Nancy Karraker, Natalia Collier, Natalya Lawrence, Neil Cox, Neil McCulloch, Nicholas Carlile, Nick Holmes, Nick Rendell, Nicola Baccetti, Nik Cole, Nobuhiko Kotaka, Noriko Iwai, Numi Mitchell, Oliver Hawlitschek, Oliver Lorvelec, P. Dee Boersma, Pablo Yorio, Patrick Couper, Paul Radley, Paul Watler, Pedrin Suarez, Pedro Regalado, Pedro Salazar, Pete McClelland, Peter Harrison, Peter Hodum, Peter Moore, Peter Newton, Peter Paul van Dijk, Peter Ryan, Peter Widmann, Petros Lymberakis, Phil Trathan, Philip Atkinson, Philippe Borsa, Philippe Raust, Pierre Pistorius, Poppy Benson, Port of Call NZ, R.W.Henry, Rafe Brown, Rainer Hutterer, Rauf Ali, Ray Nias, Ray Pierce, Renata Platenberg, Ricardo Ceia, Ricardo Lima, Richard Griffiths, Richard Phillips, Richard Porter, Rob Butler, Rob Crawford, Rob Hutchinson, Rob Martin, Rob Priddle, Rob Suryan, Robb Kaler, Robert Ibañez, Robert Puschendorf, Rod Hitchmough, Rodrigo Medellin, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Ron LeValley, Ron Moorhouse, Rory Stansbury, Rosana Paredes, Ross Sadlier, Ross Wanless, Russell Thornstrom, Ruy Jose Valka Alves, S.R. Chandramouli, S.S. Bist, Sa Santos, Sabir Bin Muzaffar, Salim Javed, Sally Poncet, Samia Sarkis, Sandra hervias Parejo, Sara Rocha, Sarita Emmanuel, Sasha Auer, Scott Shaffer, Sergio Ticul Alvarez Castañeda, Shaye Wolf, Shuihua Chen, Sixto Inchaustegui, Sophia Gottlieb, Stanley Shen, Steve Cranwell, Steve Ebbert, Sue Robinson, Sumiko Matsumura, Susan Waugh, Terry Greene, Thierry Micol, Tilo Nadler, Tim Davenport, Tom Clements, Tom Lee, Tony Foster, Tony Hutson, Tony Martin, Tony Spindalis, Tui De Roy, Ulrich Filbrandt, Ulrike Krauss, Vernon Byrd, Vibhu Prakash, Victor Hugo Reynoso, Vikash Tatayah, Vincent Bretagnolle, Vincent Nijman, Vladimir Zykov, Wei Liang, Wendy Erb, Will Mackin, Winifred Frick, Yang Liu, yus Rusila Noor, Yves Frenot, Stuart Butchart, Blair Hedges, Robert Powell, Alexandre Nascimento, Dan Chender, David Wiedenfeld, Guillermo Luna Jorquera, Ivan Tiunov, Joan Mayol Serra, Rafael Borroto Páez, Ricardo Rodriguez Estrella, Valentín Perez Mellado, Francois Moutou, Gordon Rodda, Mark Hutchinson, Robert Fisher, Aaron Hebshi, Andrew Terry, Craig Turner, Eric Wikramanayake, Fernando Fernandez, Frank Glaw, Gregory Pregill, James Millett, Jan Dolphijn, Jeff Church, Martin Jones, Mary AlkinsKoo, Sujit Chakraborty, Tara Pelembe, Will Duckworth, William (Bill) McCord, Andrea Camperio Ciani, Andrew Cuttriss, Andy Douse, Andy Green, Anne Brooke, Arnaud Bechet, Baz Hughes, Bhathiya Kekulandala, Brian Sykes, Bruce Dyer, Bryan Stuart, Carl Jones, Cesar Barrio Amoros, Christopher C. Austin, Cleber Alho, Dan Merrett, Darrin Lunde, David James Harris, David Moyer, David Pearson, David Pinaud, Dick and Anne Hornby, Djoko Iskandar, Don Drake, Eden Maloney, Edith Sabara, Eduardo Palacios, Finn Danielsen, Francisco Squeo, Fred Burton, Fred Kraus, Gad Perry, Guy Rondeau, Hidetoshi Ota, Hugh Roberston, Ian Tibbetts, Ignacio J. De la Riva, Ivan Sarenas, Jacob Esselstyn, Jaime Salas Zambrano, Jake Levenson, James O'Connor, Janice Malloy, Jean-Paul Roux, Jeff Quitugua, Jelena Kralj, Jelena Marohnic, John Damuth, John Murphy, John-Pierre Bacle, Jonathan Ekstrom, Jose A. Mateo, Juan Carlos Gonzalez, Juan Pablo Isacch, Julia Hanmer, Justine Braby, Katrine Herian, Kim Howell, Kim McConkey, Kuang-yang Lue, Lindsay Wilson, Luca Luiselli, M.S. Pradhan, Martim Melo, Masafumi Matsui, Mat Cottam, Melanie Massaro, Michel Delaugerre, Michelle Hester, Miguel A. Landestoy, Mike Rutherford, Neal Woodman, Neil Burgess, Neil Maddison, Nick Mooney, Nunia Thomas, Paola Darrigrande, Patrick McLaughlin, Paul Orange, Paul Racey, Paul Scofield, Peter Hellyer, Philip Rundel, Philp Myers, Pietro Lo Cascio, Ricardo Scalera, Rob Gubiani, Robert Anderson, Robert Cavalcantiy, Robert Reed, Robert Timm, Ruth Utzurrum, Sally Bryant, Sandra Buckner, Sarah Allen, Shahina Ghazanfar, Simon Childerhouse, Stephanie Pauquet, Steven Lapidge, Tasneem Khan, Thomas T. Struhsaker, Tigga Kingston, Tomohiro Deguchi, Victor Sanchez Cordero, Virgine Millien, William Hayes, William Stanley, Wolfgang Dittus, Don Wilson.

Island Conservation, University of California at Santa Cruz, Coastal Conservation Action Laboratory (UCSC CCAL), BirdLife International and IUCN ISSG makes no warranties or representations, express or implied, regarding the use of the material appearing in this dataset with regard to their correctness, reliability, accuracy, or otherwise. The material and geographic designations in this dataset do not imply the expressions of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, nor concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. None of Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG nor any affiliated or related entities or content providers shall be responsible or liable to any person, firm or corporation for any loss, damage, injury, claim or liability of any kind or character based on or resulting from any information contained in the dataset. Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL, BirdLife International and IUCN ISSG may update or make changes to the data provided at any time without notice; but no commitment is made to update the information contained therein.
  1. The data are supplied only for conservation purposes, scientific analysis or research.
  2. The recipient of the data will provide a full and appropriate acknowledgement and citation in any materials or publications derived in part or in whole from the data; relevant citation details will be provided with each dataset. For any publications making substantial use of the data, Island Conservation, University of California at Santa Cruz, Coastal Conservation Action Laboratory (UCSC CCAL), BirdLife International and IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) welcome the opportunity for co-authorship, collaboration and to comment prior to publication. Expressions of interest can be sent to tib@islandconservation.org.
  3. Reproduction of the dataset or products derived from it, either whole or in part, for commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission from a representative of Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG. For the purposes of these Terms of Use, "commercial purposes" means a) any use by, on behalf of, or to inform or assist the activities of, a commercial entity (an entity that operates "for profit") or b) use by any non-profit entity for the purposes of revenue generation. If you require permission please contact tib@islandconservation.org.
  4. The recipient will not publish the data in their original format, either whole or in part, on a website, FTP site, CD, memory stick or any other media. The recipient should provide a link to the original data source location at www.tib.islandconservation.org where appropriate.
  5. Use of these data does not constitute endorsement by Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG of any derived products, reports or analyses. The Island Conservation, University of California, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG logos must not be used on any derived products, reports or analyses, or supporting materials, without express permission.
  6. The recipient will only use the data provided for the purpose for which it was requested, if subsequent or different use is required the recipient must contact the Island Conservation, University of California, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG at tib@islandconservation.org again for written approval.
  7. The recipient will not pass the original datasets on to third parties and will direct all requests for use of the data back to the Island Conservation, University of California, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG at tib@islandconservation.org.
  8. The recipient may only pass on datasets derived from the data supplied by Island Conservation, University of California, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG if these derived data are supplied with the same terms of use.
  9. Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL, BirdLife International and IUCN ISSG reserve the right to comment on the accuracy of representation of the data in material produced by a recipient.
  10. Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL BirdLife International and IUCN ISSG endeavor to maintain accurate and up-to-date data at all times, but can accept no responsibility for the consequences of errors or omissions in the data, for misuse of the data by any organization or individual, or for any damage done to computing systems into which the data are entered (see Disclaimer).
  11. Either an electronic or two paper copies of all products published using data supplied by Island Conservation, UCSC CCAL, BirdLife International or IUCN ISSG will be sent, free of charge, c/o - Island Conservation, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz CA USA 95060 or via email to tib@islandconservation.org.
Please help us to maintain the most accurate and up-to-date database of insular threatened species at risk from invasive vertebrates.

Island Conservation, University of California at Santa Cruz, Coastal Conservation Action Laboratory (UCSC CCAL), BirdLife International and IUCN ISSG endeavors to maintain accurate and up-to-date data at all times. However, if errors or omissions are identified, the user should notify tib@islandconservation.org so that these can be corrected in future releases of the data.
BIRD & BAT
Present Breeding Status - Last ~20 years: 1990-Present
[+]Confirmed
Definition: Leading expert or literature CONFIRMs breeding and/or species is a single-island endemic Birds: breeding adult pairs, active nests, live/dead fledglings, eggs (whole or fragments), adults flying into crevices/vegetation/burrows with food or nesting materials; female with egg in oviduct (caught in mist nets or with other survey tools); singing/calling male, bird (or) pair holding territory.

Bats: "colony" described, mating recorded, observations of "baby" bats or preflight young, records of capture of subadults, records of females tending young; records of mating displays in bat roosts; breeding specimens collected; records of capture of pregnant or lactating females

[+]Probable
Definition: Breeding not "Confirmed" but is suspected based on a number of factors and evidence (include in notes) including:

Birds: breeding adults found in mist-nets (females without egg in oviduct), brood patches, "breeding adult fall outs", radar surveys, spot-light surveys, acoustic monitoring, guano scents, bones of young; Specimens or bones collected that led collector to believe breeding had occurred ; used/abandoned nests.

Bats:, "probable colony" recorded; breeding island mentioned in paper; species is endemic to the region; species is non-migratory

1) Island Residents - if no other information but "resident" is found in the resources or if the word "resident" was not used but the species "population" is described in the literature.
2) Region Endemic - Species is endemic to the region, specific island has been identified and information on the species is available from the past 20 years but no breeding evidence is found in the literature.
3) No/unclear breeding information found and species has not been surveyed/observed on island in last 20 yrs BUT an expert confirms/suspects the species is still there.

[+]Potential
Definition: Island with Species X in one of the historic breeding categories, but current status is unclear.
1) Potentially "Extirpated"
  • Most recent survey/island visit(s) yielded no evidence of breeding and it is unclear if species is extirpated.
  • Species is definitely absent from the island but the past history is "potential breeding" and NOT "confirmed" or "probable".
2) If species X varies inter-annually (changes island but stays in same island group from year to year) and was not found on the island during most recent survey
3) Island/species has not been surveyed within the last 20 years or unclear if it has been surveyed in the last 20 years
4) Observation/survey inconclusive or information about breeding contradicting
  • Example: adults observed but researcher inferred they were from somewhere else; species in a mixed colony and unclear from research which species was actually present; no breeding observed but researcher inferred it was too early for breeding, etc.
5) No/inconclusive survey but "suitable breeding habitat" recorded by researcher with expertise of the species and who has confirmed other breeding islands.
6) At-sea survey recorded breeders near a specific island
7) Observations of non-breeders on islands with past breeding
8) Recent surveys may have occurred but expert opinion unclear and they have not published or shared related data.
9) Specimens collected in last 20 years but breeding not recorded or determined

[+]Data Deficient
Definition: Island with Species X recorded as "Data Deficient" or "Potential Breeding" for historic breeding status and status has not been updated in the last 20 years.
1) Not enough data to extrapolate exact island location; breeding island not provided in data or in communications with experts.
2) Data from the last 20 years not available
  • Unshared data, unpublished reports that you can’t access, no response from experts; have not been able to find any information on surveys or records; etc.
  • If an expert suspects breeding but the data is unclear or is contradicting with other data.

[+]Extirpated
Definition: Confirmed extirpation from the island. Record “extirpated” in notes and any information about when it was last observed/surveyed.
** Must be Confirmed or Probable breeding in the past**

[+]Extinct
Definition: Currently listed as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild by IUCN, but bred on the island prior to its extinction (do not use if species exists somewhere in the wild)

Historic Breeding Status - Last 21-200 years: <1990
[+]Confirmed
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past

[+]Probable
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past

[+]Potential
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past
1) Extra criteria/notes
  • If an expert or publication confirms past breeding but the record/account of evidence type or year of record is still unclear.
  • Specimens collected in past years but breeding evidence not recorded or determined.
  • Expert or literature confirms the species was observed on the island >1990 but breeding was never described (and it was NOT a single-island endemic)

[+]Data Deficient
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past
1) Extra criteria/notes
  • Breeding data from last 21-200 years not available/unclear
  • Unshared data, unpublished reports that you can’t access, no response from experts or information supplied unclear/contradicting; have not been able to find any information on surveys or records

[+]Not Applicable (NA)
1) Species listed as “CONFIRMED” for Present Breeding Status
2) Species translocated to current island but with no historic status there

MAMMAL, REPTILE, AMPHIBIAN
Present Breeding Status – Last ~20 years: 1990-Present
[+]Confirmed
Definition: Leading expert or literature CONFIRMs breeding and/or species is a single-island endemic

1) Species observed, recorded, surveyed; collected (including remains) in last 20 years.
2) Species is reported in a publication within the last 20 years or experts confirm current breeding but no record or survey year is available (only used if other choices not available or found)

[+]Probable
Definition: Breeding not "Confirmed" but is suspected based on a number of factors and evidence (include in notes) including:
1) Island Residents - if no other information but "resident" is found in the resources or if the word "resident" was not used but the species "population" is described in the literature.
2) Region Endemic - Species is endemic to the region, specific island has been identified and information on the species is available from the past 20 years but no breeding evidence is found in the literature.
3) No/unclear breeding information found and species has not been surveyed/observed on island in last 20 yrs BUT an expert confirms/suspects the species is still there.

[+]Potential
Definition: Island with Species X in one of the historic breeding categories, but current status is unclear.
1) Potentially "Extirpated"
  • Most recent survey/island visit(s) yielded no evidence of breeding and it is unclear if species is extirpated.
  • Species is definitely absent from the island but the past history is "potential breeding" and NOT "confirmed" or "probable".
2) Inconclusive/conflicting surveys, searches, or data
3) Suitable breeding habitat recorded by researcher with expertise of the species and who has confirmed other breeding islands
4) Island/species has not been surveyed or observed within the last 20 years
  • Island/species said to be on the island but the status is unclear and only records are over 20 years old
5) Bones from species found on island, age unclear
6) Recent surveys may have occurred but expert opinion unclear and they have not published or shared related data.

[+]Data Deficient
Definition: Island with Species X recorded as "Data Deficient" or "Potential Breeding" for historic breeding status and status has not been updated in the last 20 years.

1) Not enough data to extrapolate exact island location; breeding island not provided in data or in communications with experts.
2) Data from the last 20 years not available; for example:
  • Unshared data, unpublished reports that you can’t access, no response from experts; have not been able to find any information on surveys or records; etc.
  • If an expert suspects breeding but the data is unclear or is contradicting with other data.

[+]Extirpated
Definition: Confirmed extirpation from the island. Record "extirpated" in notes and any information about when it was last observed/surveyed.
** Must be Confirmed or Probable breeding in the past**

[+]Extinct
Definition: Currently listed as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild by IUCN, but bred on the island prior to its extinction (do not use if species exists somewhere in the wild)

Historic Breeding Status– Last 21-200 years: <1990
[+]Confirmed
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past

[+]Probable
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past

[+]Potential
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past
1) Extra criteria/notes
  • If an expert or publication confirms past breeding but the record/account of evidence type or year of record is still unclear.
  • Specimens collected in past years but breeding evidence not recorded or determined.
  • Expert or literature confirms the species was observed on the island >1990 but breeding was never described (and it was NOT a single-island endemic).

[+]Data Deficient
Definition: Same criteria and notes as for present breeding status but used ONLY if the species is NOT CONFIRMED in the present. If species is confirmed in the present, use NA as a status in the past
1) Extra criteria/notes
  • Breeding data from last 21-200 years not available/unclear
  • Unshared data, unpublished reports that you can’t access, no response from experts or information supplied unclear/contradicting; have not been able to find any information on surveys or records

[+]Not Applicable (NA)
1) Species listed as "CONFIRMED" for Present Breeding Status
2) Species translocated to current island but with no historic status there